Lighting devices play an important role in our everyday life. There are many of them. But each performs a specific function, creating a comfortable existence at night. Since lighting fixtures for home have also a decorative function, then during the repair almost all lighting fixtures are changed. That’s what kind of lighting fixtures for the house, and we will talk about in this article.
Almost all lighting fixtures for the home are focused on a particular type of lighting. This is necessarily taken into account when buying a light fixture. For home lighting, you will need different types of lighting fixtures that provide light of the right quality.
Light sources in the home
Lights change the appearance of the space, its color and proportions. The main role in the formation of the light climate is played by light sources (lamps). They are commonly distinguished by the principle of light flux formation, power, shape, degree of radiation and other characteristics.
Until recently, the main source of light in living rooms were incandescent lamps. Their power consumption ranged from 40 to 100 W. Incandescent light bulbs give off a yellowish light, the brightness of which depends on the wattage of the bulb. The glass bulb bulbs can be shaped or shaped for open installation.
Some lamps can be used without a lampshade and reflector because their bulb has a mirror coating that acts as a reflector. Incandescent lamps with mirror reflectors are otherwise known as deep reflector lamps. They are used wherever directional light is needed, usually for exposition purposes. Unfortunately, incandescent lamps do not last long, which has led to their complete “extinction”.
Halogen bulbs differ from ordinary incandescent light bulbs in that an inert gas is pumped inside their bulbs. It significantly increases the luminous efficiency of the tungsten filament by increasing its temperature. Halogen lamps give pure white light and do not distort the color of objects in the room. They are able to produce a narrow luminous flux of high brightness and have a long service life.
However, apart from their advantages, halogen lamps also have disadvantages. First, this is the limitation of their use in residential areas because of their high brightness. Their light, when directed at a surface with high reflectivity, becomes dazzling. Decrease the brightness of halogen lamps by mounting them in luminaires of special models, using matte diffusers.
Fluorescent lamps have an even higher luminous efficacy. They last up to five times longer than incandescent light bulbs. These fluorescent lamps are discharge lamps. The electrical discharge excites the luminescence of the fluorophore which is coated on the inside of the bulb. The medium in which the discharge occurs consists of mercury vapor and argon. The fluorophore determines the emission spectrum of the lamp and its light output.
A disadvantage of most fluorescent lamps produced today is the cold light they emit. In order to make their light more pleasing to the eye, a fluorophore has recently been obtained that emits warm, yellowish tones. The light of such lamps is adapted for the eyes and it is recommended to use them in the house.
The various shapes and sizes of fluorescent lamps, make it possible to use them in luminaires of various designs. Fluorescent lamps with a wattage of 20-40 W are recommended for lighting kitchens and dining rooms, as well as for cornice lighting and the lighting of vertical surfaces. Small fluorescent lamps with a wattage of 8-20 W are suitable for wall lights as well as for table and floor lights illuminating work surfaces. Shaped fluorescent lamps, 22-40 watts, are used in ceiling and pendant luminaires for general lighting.
Luminaires for the home
As practice shows, you have to choose not only the light source that suits the fixture of a particular design, but also the fixture itself. When choosing a light fixture, you need to consider the purpose of the room, as well as the type of lighting that a particular functional area needs.
All sold lighting fixtures can be divided into: general lighting, local lighting, display and accent lighting, decorative and night lights. In addition, luminaires can be ceiling, wall, table and spot lights.
Ceiling light fixtures, are used for general or combined lighting of rooms. Suspended from the ceiling, they diffuse light throughout the room, visually increasing its volume. Long corridors and elongated rooms may require the installation of several ceiling lights. For a uniform distribution of light in the room are used multi-arm chandeliers with several light elements on a single bar.
Ceiling lights look good in the hallway, corridor, bathroom, toilet, as well as on the stairs. In kitchens or living rooms they are also present, but perform background lighting. Separate functional areas and work surfaces are lit with wall, table or spotlights. In the bedroom, as a rule, wall lights are used for general lighting.
Ceiling lights are hung up at a distance of 2.3-2.5 m from the floor, so that the light source is above eye level of the person standing. If there is a dining table under the lamp, you’d better buy a lamp with a design that allows you to lower the light source while eating. As a rule, this distance is at least 75 cm from the table plane.
Spotlights are convenient because they can be combined with almost any light fixture. They take up little space, because they can be recessed and embedded into the ceiling, shelves and racks.
Depending on their purpose, spotlights can provide narrow directional light. Therefore, they can be used to organize both general and directional lighting.
Spotlights are good in those places where large-scale chandeliers or inappropriate, or do not fit into the overall size of the room. They are good for lighting closets or highlighting the interior space of built-in cabinets. Spotlights are in good harmony with suspended or stretch ceilings.
There are also swiveling spotlights. They are either recessed into the ceiling or mounted on a light rail. The busbar allows you to change the direction of the light flux due to movable elements of the design. It has proven itself in photographic studios, as well as for picture lighting and decorative lighting.
Wall lights are designed to create local illumination. They create accent lighting that illuminates a relatively small space to a high degree. Wall lights can be found in hallways, on either side of mirrors, in hallways, bathrooms, as well as bed headboards.
Wall lights with an upward light flux work well. They use the ceiling as a reflector, illuminating the adjacent wall surfaces with a diffused light. Due to the game of shadow and light created, stucco or carved details of the decor will look good. But it is worth bearing in mind that such lighting simultaneously shades and all the defects of wall finishing.
Table lights are used to illuminate working surfaces and, as a rule, have a movable design. They are divided into working and decorative. There are a number of requirements for work table lights based on eye hygiene. While decorative lamps are produced for aesthetic purposes, and sometimes have, the light is not usual for the eyes. What they have in common is the low height of the legs and installation on nightstands, tables or dressers.
Due to the fact that direct light in some lamps can be blinding, I advise you to choose combined light fixtures with preferential indirect lighting. Such luminaires combine the functions of local and general lighting due to higher power and a specially designed design of the radiating part.
Representatives of combined lighting are floor lamps and table lamps with volumetric shades of translucent materials. They are placed on coffee tables, dressing tables, consoles and bedside tables. Floor lamps are placed near sofas and armchairs. These light fixtures are usually accentuated by decorative design: bright lampshades of fancy shapes, shaped supports etc.
There are home lighting fixtures that have no practical function. They are used only as decorative elements of the interior. Lampshades of such lamps are made of colored glass, plastic, ceramics, paper, and often stylized, giving interesting light and shadow effects.
When choosing lighting fixtures for your home, think about its purpose, form and style. Decide what the light source should be and in what direction it will work. Otherwise, tempted by a beautiful lamp or floor lamp, you risk buying a beautiful, but completely useless thing in your home.